Q Patients with trauma and hemodynamic instability manifest all except

a) Tachycardia

b) Hypotension

c) Increased cardiac output

d) High and some times low cardiac output

Answer c

Cardiac output decreases and not increases after blood loss

When we are using invasive Arterial Blood pressure monitoring it is important to differentiate the physiological graph from artifacts. Patients with trauma can manifest various artifacts because of decreased cardiac output, hypotension and tachycardia.

Other factors responsible for altered graph formation are  pulse wave reflection in the arterial system and dynamic response of the Catheter Tube Transducer system (CTT)