Q) Kussmaul sign is not seen in
a) Restrictive Cardiomyopathy
b) Pulmonary embolism
c) Constrictive pericarditis
d) Severe right ventricular infarction
Kussmaul sign is seen in massive pulmonary embolism only.
It is the abnormal variation in jugular venous pressure during inspiration. Normally during inspiration the mean venous pressure decreases and the amplitude of a wave increases.
In Kussmaul sign, the jugular venous pressure increases or remains the same. This is seen in number of conditions.
Constrictive or effusive pericarditis
●Predominant right ventricular infarction
●Severe right ventricular dysfunction
●Massive pulmonary embolism.
●Partial obstruction of the vena cavae.
●Right atrial and right ventricular tumors.
●Severe tricuspid regurgitation
●Occasionally tricuspid stenosis and congestive heart failure.
●Rarely cardiac tamponade